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Calculated Variation In Adiabatic Combustion Temperature
For An Oxygen Reaction With Certain Elements
As Reported By Grosse

Atomic Number

Atomic Weight

Element

Temperature of Combustion deg R

Heating Number Value BTU/LB

1

~1

hydrogen

~5,400

~52

2

~4

helium

inert

 

3

~7

lithium

~4,700

~18

4

~9

beryllium

~7,900

~28

5

~10

boron

~5,400

~26

6

~12

carbon

~3,700

~14

7

~14

nitrogen

~( 2,200)

quasi-inert with O

8

~16

oxygen

..........

oxidizer

9

~19

fluorine

..........

oxidizer

10

~20

neon

..........

inert

11

~23

sodium

~3,800

~4

12

~24

magnesium

~6,100

~11

13

~27

aluminum

~7,000

~13

14

~28

silicium

~4,600

~12

15

~31

phosphorus

~(2,400)

~11

16

~32

sulphur

~(1,800)

~4

17

~35

chlorine

~(400)

oxidizer

18

~40

argon

..........

inert

19

~39

potassium

~3,100

~2

20

~40

calcium

~6,900

~7

21

~45

scandium

~7,100

~8

22

~48

titanium

~6,000

~9

23

~51

vanadium

~6,000

~7

24

~52

chromium

~6,000

~6

25

~55

manganese

~6,200

~5

26

~56

iron

~5,500

~4

27

~59

cobalt

~(4,300)

~3

28

~59

nickel

~(3,000)

~2

29

~64

copper

~2,200

~1

30

~65

zinc

~4,000

~3

31

~70

gallium

~4,900

~3

32

~73

germanium

~5,600

~3

33

~75

arsenic

~(3,000)

~3

34

~79

selenium

~(1,700)

~3

35

~80

bromine

~(400) oxidizer~2

 

36

~84

krypton

~.......

inert

37

~85

rubidium

~2,900

~1

38

~88

strontium

~6,400

~2

39

~89

yttrium

~7,400

~3

40

~91

zirconium

~8,700

~4

41

~93

niobium

~7,300

~3

42

~96

molybdenum

~5,500

~2

43

~99

technetium

~........

~1

44

~101

rubidium

~........

~1

45

~103

rhodium

~........

~1

46

~106

palladium

~1,300.

.~1

47

~108

silver

~1,200

~1

48

~112

cadmium

~3,100

~1

49

~115

indium

~4,100

~1

50

~119

tin

~4,900

~2,5

51

~122

antimony

~3,100

~2

52

~128

tellurium

..........

~2

53

~127

iodine

..........

~1

54

~131

xenon

..........

inert

55

~133

cesium

~2,700

~1

56

~137

barium

~5,400

 

57 to 71

 

:

 

rare earths

72

~178

hafnium

~8,700

 

73

~181

tantalum

~(7,600)

 

74

~184

tungsten

~5,800

 

75

~186

rhenium

~(4,000)

 

76

~190

osmium

~(1,800)

 

77

~193

iridium

~(1,400)

 

78

~195

platinum

~800

 

79

~197

gold

~600

 

80

~201

mercury

~1,000

 

81

~204

thallium

~(2,000)

 

82

~207

lead

~3,200

 

83

~209

bismuth

~3,600

 

84

~210

polonium

~(2,100)

 

85

~210

astatine

~(1,000)

 

86

~222

radon

.........

inert

87

~223

francium

~2,400

 

88

~226

radium

~4,500

 

89

~227

actinium

~7,000

 

90

~232

thorium

~9,000

 


Some double-base propellant compositions:

J.P. powder:
Nitrocellulose(13.25%N2): 52.2%
Nitroglycerin: 43.0%
Diethyl phthalate: 3.0%
Diphenylamine: 0.6%
Potassium Nitrate(saltpeter): 1.1%
Nigrosine: 0.1%

J.P.N. powder:
Nitrocellulose(13.25%N2): 51.50%
Nitroglycerin: 43.00%
Diethyl phthalate: 3.00%
Ethyl centralite: 1.00%
Potassium sulfate: 1.25%
Carbon black: 0.20%
Candelilla wax: 0.05%

Slow burning powder:
Nitrocellulose(12.2%N2): 56.5%
Nitroglycerin: 28.5%
Dinitrotoluene: 11.0%
Ethyl centralite: 4.4%
Candelilla wax: 0.1%

---------------------------------------------------
Relative value of Specific Impulse:
Black powder:-----------------------~125 sec.
Double-base:------------------------~200 sec.
Cellulose acetate+ammonium nitrate: ~175 sec.
Asphalt+ammonium perchlorate:-------~180 sec.
Polysulfide+ ":---------------------~200 sec.
Polyurethane+":---------------------~225-230 sec.
Polybutadiene+ ":-------------------~230-235 sec.
Polyurethane+ Aluminum + " :--------~240 sec.
Polybutadiene+ Aluminum + ":--------~245 sec.
PBAA + Aluminum + ":----------------~250 sec.
Composite/double-base:--------------~275 sec.
---------------------------------------------------


List Of Ingredients Used In Double-Base Propellants


Plasticizer (Fuel And Oxidizer) --NG: nitroglycerin --TMETN: trimethylolethane trinitrate --TEGDN: triethylene glycol dinitrate --DEGDN: diethylene glycol dinitrate


Plasticizer (Fuel) --DEP: diethylphtalate --TA: triacetine --PU: polyurethane


Binder (Fuel And Oxidizer) --NC: nitrocellulose


Stabilizer --EC: ethyl centralite --2NDPA: 2-nitrodiphenilamine


Burning Rate Catalyst --PbSa: lead salicylate --PbSt: lead stearate --Pb2EH: lead 2-ethylhexoate --CuSa: copper salicylate --CuSt: copper stearate --LiF: lithium fluoride


High Energy Additive --RDX: cyclotrimethylene trinitramine --HMX: cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine --NGD: nitroguanidine


Coolant --OXM: oxamide


Opacifier --C: carbon black


Flame Supressant --KNO3: potassium nitrate (saltpeter) --K2SO4: potassium sulfate


Metal Fuel --Al: aluminum


Combustion Instability Suppressant --Al: aluminum --Zr: zirconium --ZrC: zirconium carbide



List Of Ingredients Used For Composite Propellants


Oxidizer
--AP: ammonium perchlorate
--AN: ammonium nitrate
--NP: nitronium perchlorate
--KP: potassium perchlorate
--RDX: cyclotrimethylene trinitramine
--HMX: cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine


Binder
--PS: polysulfide
--PVC: polyvinyl chloride
--PU: polyurethane
--CTPB: carboxyl terminated polybutadiene
--HTPB: hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene


Curing And/Or Crosslinking Agents
--PQD: paraquinone dioxime
--TDI: toluene-2,4-diisocyanate
--MAPO: tris(1-(2-methyl) aziridinyl) phosphine oxide
--ERLA-O51O: N,N,O-tri (1,2-epoxy propyl)-4-aminophenol
--IPDI: isophorone diiosocyanate


Bonding Agent
--MAPO: tris( 1-(2-methyl) aziridinyl) phosphine oxide
--TEA: triethanolamine
--MT-4: adduct of 2.0 moles MAPO, 0.7 mole azipic acid,
.........and 0.3 mole tararic acid


Plasticizer
--DOA: dioctyl adipate
--IDP: isodecyl pelargonete
--DOP: dioctyl phthalate


Burning Rate Catalyst
--Fe2O3: ferric oxide
--FeO(OH): hydrated ferric oxide
--nBF: n-butyl ferrocene
--DnBF: di-n-butyl ferrocene
--LiF: lithium fluoride


Metal Fuel
--Al: aluminum
--Mg: magnesium
--Be: beryllium
--B: boron


Combustion Instability Suppressant
--Al: aluminum
--Zr: zirconium
--ZrC: zirconium carbide


THERMOPLASTIC BINDERS

 

Binder                Oxidiser            Agency     Process

 

Plasticised 50/50     KNO2/Ammonium       Monsanto   Compression Picrate Formed

Ethyl Cellulose

 

Polyisobutylene                           British    Compression Formed

 

Polyvinyl Acetate     Ammonium Nitrate                Still Limited Use

 

Polyvinyl Chloride                                    Mix, cast, high temp

 

THERMOSET BINDERS

 

Polyester             Ammonium Perchlorate Aerojet    Cast, cure, cartridge load

Potassium Perchlorate (Aeroplex)

 

Polysulfide           Ammonium Perchlorate JPL/Thiokol Cast in case /case bonded

 

Butadiene             Ammonium Nitrate     Phillips Petroleum Extruded-cartridge

 

credit © Mark Wade  http://www.astronautix.com/ 

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